Decide who we stand for. In order to properly compose your speech, you need to understand with whom we will talk. Who are these people? What do they already know about your speech? How do they relate to this topic? Where are their pain points? What your words will make them nod during your speech, and what will cause a protest?
Start from the end. What result do you want as a result of your performance? What will people have to do after you finish talking? Vote? Buy stocks? Get out on a cleanup day? Make a contribution to a charity fund? Change your behavior? So this is what you need to conduct all your speech. This is the starting point and we will bring to it.
Structure speech. When you are sitting in front of a white sheet or an empty monitor and it is difficult for you to start, change your approach. No need to immediately try to write the whole speech in a single stream. It's hard to write and hard to listen to. Divide it into parts. To get started, highlight three key pieces. Rule three works great in public speaking. Three blocks, each dedicated to a key thesis. Each thesis should lead to the key action that we planned with you in the previous paragraph.
But I also recommend splitting each of these blocks into three parts. We get 9 parts. Writing 9 small parts and licking them to perfection is much easier than coping with an amorphous cloud of all speech at once. Do you have an hour and a half for a lecture? This is 90 minutes, that is, three blocks of 30 minutes or 9 segments of 10 minutes. Write 9 key points and open each for 10 minutes.
You only have 18 minutes since you play at TED? Perfectly. Three blocks of 6 minutes, each divided into pieces for 2 minutes. We are writing theses. We rehearse and perform brilliantly. 9 key points are not difficult to remember. No need to memorize a long speech. 9 abstracts can be written on a cheat sheet or on a card that you hold in your hands. 9 abstracts will fit on the phone screen, and it is unlikely to be sometimes inappropriate to look there.
Structured speech is much easier to listen to and it is easier to reach the audience with it. The structure will not allow you to blur in one thought throughout the text. It is easier to cross out water from a structured text.
Announce. Advise the audience in advance what your speech structure will be. Tell us what you plan to report. The public loves the announcements. He likes to understand where everything is moving. He loves the illusion of control. Do not reveal all the cards at once, but throw intrigue and give hope.
Down and Out trouble started. Think carefully about the very beginning of your performance. It’s always harder to start talking. The speaker is most worried at the beginning of the speech. He does not yet know the audience, he does not understand how she reacts to it. He worries whether he will like his performance or not. Tired of doubts. Yes, and the audience at the beginning always gazes steadily - what kind of pretzel came out here and is trying to tell us something. And these gazes confuse the speaker even more. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare for such a moment especially carefully. Think vivid self-presentation. Designate your expertise so that the public has less distrust. Build up “icebreakers” - jokes and unexpected emotional moments that should quickly melt the ice between you and the public.
Do not forget the arguments. Each thesis must be supported by examples and arguments so that it sounds more convincing.
Texture. A speech consisting only of statements and instructions is of no interest to anyone. Gather more facts about your subject, statistics, quotes and scientific data. This will enhance the effect and give speech and you significance.
Maneuver. In order for the listeners not to doze off, the speech should periodically change direction. The structure of 9 pieces here will help you perfectly. Statistics should be replaced by stories, they should be replaced by vivid metaphors, and when you feel that your attention has dimmed again, throw questions into the audience. It is advisable not rhetorical, but requiring reflection and response. This brings the performance to life and gives the audience a sense of ownership. Which in turn improves their impression of a speaker. More life examples, unexpected comparisons, references to authoritative opinions and good humor. And your cocktail will not fail to please.
In short! Do not try to tell everything you know. Even in an hour and a half lecture, you don’t need to try to cram the entire amount of your knowledge on the topic (or the knowledge of your expert newsmaker). Show the audience that you are an iceberg. The above-water part of your knowledge is in your speech, and the underwater is much more. It will cause respect. And the desire to listen to you again.
Repetition is the mother of learning. To enhance the effect and better remember what you are saying do not be afraid to repeat the key thoughts of each block of your speech. Most people do not perceive information very well. Many during your speech will be distracted by their thoughts, the whisper of a neighbor or messages on the phone. Therefore, the most important theses must be repeated. Sometimes literally. Sometimes supplementing with new arguments. Sometimes paraphrasing important points.
Get ready for questions. No matter how fully you open the topic, most likely there are those who want to torment you with questions. Someone because it is especially meticulous. Someone because he did not hear something important for himself. Someone just to attract your attention and the attention of other listeners. When writing a text of speech, think over the most probable questions and prepare answers. In addition to questions, there may be objections, and you need to be prepared for this. They will tell you: it does not work, it is not effective, you are wrong, and so on. You should not boil, giving back emotions. You must use one of the blanks to cool off. Or neatly blocking aggression and transferring the conversation to a peaceful course.
Plan b. In the process of speaking, something may go wrong. The participants in the conversation may be too aggressive. A lively argument may ensue. The dispute may lead away from the topic you have prepared. You must have a plan on how to get everything back in place. You must have a plan to level things out. Have a few jokes in reserve, a couple of interesting quotes, a fresh joke, appropriate for a public story. By discharging the atmosphere in such a way, you can more easily return to the original course and still lead the audience to the target action.
Visualization. Consider visual accompaniment for your performance. Most people are visuals. They understand better when there are pictures or objects in front of their eyes. Decide how you will reinforce your speech: slides, drawing on a flipchart, handouts, unexpected objects in your hands during a speech. Come up with something non-standard, something that other speakers haven’t done yet. At least speakers from your industry. This greatly diversifies the picture observed by the audience, which means that it does not let them get bored and snore than disgrace the speaker.
Of course, there are a lot of nuances of preparing a public speech. Dozens of books have been written about this and in one article everything cannot be fit. Remember the main thing: understand who you are speaking for, structure your speech and always have a plan B. And a grateful audience!
Where to begin?
Any example of public speaking begins with the correct preparation of speech. No matter how wonderful the text of the speaker may seem, you need to understand that it is worth the remarkable work and long hours of practice.
Each successful example of public speaking begins with the preparation of a speech. Mark Twain at one time did not in vain say that it takes about three weeks to prepare an impromptu. Any performance, regardless of their appearance and the goal pursued, should be prepared in advance. First you need to do the so-called "skeleton" of the performance. To do this, you need to decide on the following positions:
- Understand the motivation of the people who came to listen to the speech.
- Identify the main idea of the speech.
- Divide this idea into several component parts (subheadings).
- Identify keywords. They will need to be repeated several times in the speech, so that the listeners better remember what, in fact, we are talking about.
- Each speech should have a clear plan and structure. The presentation should consist of the introduction, the main part and conclusions.
When the speaker has decided on the basic structure of his speech, “muscles” must be built up on this “skeleton”. What can they consist of?
- You can use vivid examples from life or literature, the main thing is that they correspond to the main topic.
- To help the listener visually consolidate the information received, it is worth preparing graphs, slides, pictures, videos, etc.
- You can ask the audience a question during the speech, this will help keep the attention of the public on the main topic.
Particular attention should be paid to the beginning and end of the performance. They play the main role in communication between the speaker and the listener. The introduction helps to make a first impression of the speaker, and summing up the results allows students to consolidate the information received.
During the preparation of the presentation, many questions may arise. For example, how to start a public speaking? The main thing here is from the very beginning to interest the public. The first impression of the speaker will accompany him throughout the speech, and if you make a mistake, it will be difficult to correct it later.
For example, a witty joke or some interesting fact may become an introduction to a public speech. You can puzzle the audience with a question or intrigue with a pause. The main thing is to attract attention. Just do not start apologizing for the fact that the voice is hoarse, this is the first speech, etc. The speaker always had to be self-confident, and wrap every nuisance to help. For example, if the speaker is really sick, you need not apologize, but say that in connection with such and such circumstances, I ask everyone to sit closer so that I can be heard.
End of performance
As for the ending, it is important to summarize the whole presentation, highlight the main thoughts and recall the issues raised. The last phrases should have a certain emotional message and be expressive, only this way the listener can not only award the speaker with applause, but also become a follower of his ideas. Although, no matter how you talk about the correct design of the speech, it will be easier to consider examples of public speaking.
Varieties of public speaking
Examples of public speaking are divided into several types:
- Information. Most of them are reports, lectures, oral answers.
- Protocol and label. Such speeches are used when they meet important guests, make toasts, mourning speech or open a new institution.
- Entertaining. Usually they are used for a pleasant pastime, they have an entertaining context, but at the same time transmit information. As an example, one can cite the performances of comedians of Russian pop music E. Petrosyan, E. Stepanenko, M. Zadornov and others.
- Convincing performance. Such a report should have undeniable facts and evidence that will persuade the audience to your side. Examples are the speeches of famous politicians. For example, in 1863, Abraham Lincoln delivered a Gettysburg speech, where he assured citizens that not a single soldier had died in vain, and this was a necessary sacrifice on the way to freedom.
Catch up in three minutes
In general, the audience’s attention remains only 15-20 minutes, this is due to psychophysiological reasons. Depending on the variety, oral presentations can last from a few minutes to 1-2 hours. However, there are also such speeches that need to be delivered in 3 minutes. In most cases, these performances are wedding toasts or press conferences. In total, the length of the speech should be from 200 to 405 words. Here is an example of a 3-minute public appearance:
“Today, the Dalai Lama for the first time gave a unique interview to a Russian blogger. For his YouTube channel, business blogger Dmitry Portnyagin was the first in the CIS to interview the Dalai Lama. Communication with the famous Buddhist took place at the Delhi hotel, where the monk often stops with his followers. Before starting the conversation, the premises were checked twice: the first was the Indian guard, led by the Sikh, and then the personal protection of His Holiness.
The interview lasted only an hour. During this time, the participants in the conversation managed to discuss political issues, including the competence of Gorbachev, Yeltsin and Putin. Predict the future of Russia, talk about material and spiritual values, mutual understanding between people and the secrets of success. Each question received a detailed answer. The Dalai Lama spoke openly and with humor. In the end, he gave some advice for entrepreneurs and talked about personal safety.
Dmitry Portnyagin did not remain indifferent during the conversation. He showed the Dalai Lama a photograph of his grandfather, said that in his office there was always a photograph of the supreme head of Tibet, so he was also interested in this topic. Saying goodbye to His Holiness, Dmitry presented the Dalai Lama with a cap with earflaps as a keepsake. The monk immediately put on a new thing and appeared in this form in front of the camera lenses. The full version of the interview can be viewed on the Transformer channel.
Will it fit or not?
This example of a public speaking text follows all the rules. Such a short speech fully reveals the topic of the presentation of the video on the YouTube channel. It tells about the participants, the venue of the interview, the questions that were raised and the general mood that was present during the conversation.
At the end of the press release, he encouraged listeners to watch the full version of the video. Although the ending can be supplemented with one more two sentences, saying that the interview turned out to be successful and informative for everyone.
For speech to be effective, it must be accurate and expressive. And these may not always be large volumes of text. You can convey your thoughts with several strong sentences and vivid comparisons. For example, the public speech of Alexander I before the French ambassadors before the start of the war was as follows:
“Here is a small Europe, and this is a big Russia (he shows all this on the map). In case of failure, you can only retreat to Paris, and I can run to the edge of Kamchatka! But at the same time, every meter of this land will be hostile to you, even the women will not stop the fight. Russia may lose some battles, but it will never be defeated. ”
To say that the ambassadors left under the impression is nothing to say. The example of the text of the public speech of Tsar Alexander I amazes readers today. There is not a drop of arrogance, solid facts served with the right “dressing”.
A striking example of modern oratory can serve as the speech of Steve Jobs. Oratory was definitely not his skate - it was just a hobby, but he began each presentation of a new product with his own speech. Examples in its execution are as follows:
These are just small fragments of one of his speeches. But how does a person motivate!
The right decision
You can give a speech on any topic. Examples of public speaking are easy to find in print and other media. Speakers usually address important social, political, and economic issues. Recently, it has become fashionable to give trainings on ways to earn money on the Web, to present a variety of training programs or to draw attention to promotions. Sometimes speakers conduct psychological trainings, discuss religion or philosophy. But no matter what the speaker says, his main goal is to captivate the audience.
A speaker is not the one who professionally manipulates pathos with speeches, but the one who is able to conduct a simultaneous dialogue with thousands of listeners. He must speak the language of the people who listen to him, understand their problems, find common ground and skillfully lead to the adoption of the right decision.
It may seem that it is diverse and does not have clear boundaries, this public speech. The examples presented above give a false impression that the texts of the speakers have nothing in common. In fact, they all have one goal: the listener must agree with the point of view of the speaker. And this can be done by completely different methods, up to provocation. Although this method is mainly used in litigation.
The founder of the Russian Bar A.F. Koni once defended a hunchbacked disabled person. For many years, a neighbor mocked him, and once he could not stand it, the hunchback grabbed a stone and threw it at him, thereby causing serious bodily harm. In his public speech, A. F. Coney was original like no other. He, as expected, turned to the jury: “Gentlemen of the jury!” After a pause, he repeated this phrase four more times, making minute stops after each appeal. После четвертого обращения один из присяжных не выдержал и яростно выпалил: «Вы что, издеваетесь?!» А. Ф. Кони не растерялся, именно такой реакции он и ожидал: «Я обратился к Вам вежливо и всего 4 раза, и Вы уже начали нервничать. Мой клиент долгие годы выслушивал оскорбления в свою сторону. Что он должен был чувствовать?»
This statement reached its goal - the defendant was acquitted.
Who feeds you, comrade judges?
History knows many cases with such original performances. Even in the literature you can find good examples of oratory, from which you can teach this art. So, in the novel by A. M. Gorky, “Mother,” convicted Pavel Vlasov spoke at the hearing. He was convicted under a political article and refused to carry out an escape prepared by his comrades only in order to deliver a speech to the large people who had gathered at the trial.
His speech was full of refrains, where he spoke on behalf of the people, but the climax was the main “highlight” of the speech: “How can you destroy the workers who feed you, comrades judges?” Creating such a speech is worth a lot.
Prosperity of the country
Concluding the article, I would like to give one more option of public speaking. Sample text on "Theft in Japan."
“The country's prosperity is influenced by many human and economic factors. Among them there is one, almost insignificant fact, which seems to us fantastic absurdity.
In Japan, they do not steal. They don’t steal at all. Do not steal. They never steal. People do not lock apartments and cars. Shops safely put trays of goods on the streets and safely forget about them. They know: no one will take someone else's.
In this country, you can forget anything and anywhere, and then come for the loss after a few days. She will remain untouched. Every Japanese knows: if something is missing, it probably lies where it was lost, which means it will be found. Whether it's a mobile phone or a wallet, anyway, any thing will be found.
In Japan, do not accept tips. The seller or waiter will run after you for several blocks to give change. Most residents of the capital ride bicycles, and no one binds them. Steal a bike ?! This is ridiculous!
Here they know: taking someone else's is a shame. After him, they will no longer trust a person, he will never wash him off.
And by the way, about the economy. Officials sacredly follow this rule: to take someone else's is a taboo. Not so long ago, a Japanese minister hanged himself, who was suspected of free treatment of finances. Not even in theft. Because of this story, the previous prime minister also resigned.
So what determines the prosperity of the country? That's right, from theft, and more precisely - from its absence. "
A speaker is a kind of shooter. He either hits the target and forces everyone to bow their heads in front of him, or misses, and then the depressed crowd begins to go about their business, ignoring the speaker's words. Therefore, before speaking to the public, you need to aim for a specific goal. Examples of public speaking leaders will help.
Step 1: Get Ready
It is important to spend a few minutes thinking about what you want to achieve with your speech or presentation. As the great Yogi Bera noted, "if you don’t know where you are going, you will find yourself somewhere else." So think for a few minutes on the following:
What is this performance? Common types are informational (teaching, instructing), persuasive (your goal is to change people's beliefs and behavior), emotional (aimed at emotional reaction).
Who is your audience? What do they already know about this topic? What, in their opinion, is true and what is not? What do they want? What are they hoping for? What are they afraid of?
What should the audience feel? What do you want them to do? Choose 1-3 things that you want to convey to them (based on what they already know or what they believe in, what they hope for, what they fear, and what you want them to understand), which will then encourage them do what you want from them? If possible, stick to the three main points. Two induce a choice ("or" - "or"), four are too annoying.
What is your own point of view? Neutral Speech - Boring Speech!
Step 2: Organize Information
Research into the psychology of consumption shows that when you give people too much choice and too much information, their attention is scattered and they don’t end up buying anything. When you expect the audience to “buy” what you are talking about, ideas need to be as simple and uncomplicated as possible. Here is a simple outline that you can follow and which will keep your audience focused.
Attention-grabbing introduction. Use a quote, history, question, statistic — something that hooks people as quickly as possible. “Good morning, and thank you for inviting me,” is not a very exciting start. Remember - this is your only chance to convey to the audience that you should listen.
Briefly about the main thing. Let the audience understand what they’re talking about: “Today we’ll talk about ...” The old saying, “tell them what you will tell them, tell it, and then say what you told about” is absolutely correct. (You can also add what benefits listeners will receive from your presentation. This will inspire them to listen more carefully!)
Paragraphs 1-3. Justify your thesis. These main points should be built on what you prepared before (what you want the audience to know or understand). To make your thesis resonate with the audience, add stories, statistics, examples from news and popular culture, quotes from experts and personal experience. But you don’t need to stuff all this at every point. Choose one or two ways to revive each item and move on.
Summary of speech. Tell people what you just told them. (This is serious - our memory is short, and our attention disappears quickly.)
Questions and answers. Some people think that questions should be left at the very end. But in this case, you allow the audience to determine which topic and in what tone the performance will end. You tried too hard to allow this! Post questions and answers before you summarize your presentation to complete it on your own terms.
Conclusion. The audience will remember best what they heard last. Complete unfinished thoughts, express the last inspirational conclusion that will encourage people to think and act differently, and end with a spectacular and memorable statement. What is even better is that these last words refer to the beginning of the speech, then it will be perceived as completely completed.
Step 3: Perform with enthusiasm
Your task is not just to survive your performance, but to demonstrate empathy, humor, your style. Meet the audience with your eyes, use gestures to generate energy, walk around the room (not too much), and let your voice and your face be alive: you must show that you really care about your topic and your audience. Do not stand still - do something.
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