In 2010, His Holiness Patriarch Kirill noted that Moscow Zlatoglava did not live up to its name for a long time: the capital is in last place among all regions of Russia in the ratio of churches to the Orthodox population. In order to even this indicator to at least the national average - 11.2 thousand people per parish - it is necessary to build another 591 churches in the city. Took this problem Foundation "Support for the construction of churches in Moscow", which, together with the Government of Moscow, began implementation Program 200. This program provides for the development of projects and the construction of 200 new churches in 8-10 years. To date, 18 churches have already been built and as many are under construction.
The state provides assistance and support to the charitable activities of religious organizations, as well as their implementation of socially significant cultural and educational programs and events (part 3 of article 18 of the Federal Law of September 26, 1997 No. 125-FZ "On Freedom of Conscience and on Religious Associations" ) As for the Program 200, its financing is carried out exclusively through charitable donations and voluntary contributions, mainly through the official website of the program. However, the Moscow Government does not remain indifferent and allocates land for construction free of charge, and also assists in resolving issues of laying the necessary communications. This fact is a stumbling block for many citizens. Over the four years of the program, Muscovites have already signed more than one petition and staged more than one rally calling for an end to its implementation. Voting against the Program 200 is also taking place on the official website of the Russian Public Initiative, however preliminary results suggest that this initiative will not gain the required number of votes.
Vsevolod Chaplin, Archpriest, member of the Public Chamber of the Russian Federation:
“During the construction of any object, there are consents and disagreements, and therefore certain discussions arise. But it must be understood that people with different vital interests (from religion to sport), people of different nationalities must have places in order to meet in their own way.” interests. Therefore, we all advocate for the situation to be resolved as soon as possible. "
July 15, 2014 in Public Chamber of the Russian Federation hearings were held at which the main reasons for the discontent of citizens arising from the implementation of the "Program-200" were discussed, as well as ways to solve them. Among the claims, speakers noted the cutting down of squares and parks for the construction of religious buildings, the alienation of common lands, the change in the category of land plots. According to Muscovites, public hearings are held with numerous violations. Natalya Antonova, a lawyer, a representative of the initiative group of residents of the Kurkino district of Moscow, described the situation in her area as follows: “There are many Orthodox among the initiative group, and we do not object to the construction of churches. We are indignant at the local government, which abuses the obtained powers and does not act in the interests of The authorities, using the principle of political anonymity, unceremoniously and cynically choose the most valuable sites for the city dwellers, usually parks, for building churches. Kurkino district, they proposed a site that is within walking distance and suits everyone except local government bodies.The latter not only do not want to hear us, but they also blackmail us if we don’t agree to the construction of the temple, they will erect a mosque. view of the law and the Russian Orthodox faith. " At the same time, the list of measures to select land plots for the design and construction of Orthodox churches on the territory of Moscow is strictly determined by the decree of the Moscow Government of October 20, 2010 No. 2367-RP and federal regulations, in particular, the Land and Town Planning Codes of the Russian Federation.
The discussion about the implementation of the program for the construction of churches in Moscow was very stormy. Tatyana Terenina, a representative of the environmental community of the Moscow Administrative Okrug, expressed concerns that for a completely different purpose objects may appear on the territory allotted for the temple. Alexander Golomolzin, the president of the Sanity Foundation, said that under the cover of a program to build Orthodox shrines, public land worth 150 million rubles. and above is transferred free of charge to private use, and all construction work is carried out illegally. Meanwhile, supporters of the implementation of the program have already organized the Coordination Center "Protect" Program 200 "and are actively working to assist in the construction of temple complexes within walking distance.
Participants in the ensuing discussion proposed different ways to solve the problem: the construction of temples from light portable structures or on stilts, the use of environmentally friendly materials, the equipment of premises for the church on the first floors of residential buildings. At the end of the hearing Joseph Diskin, a member of the Public Chamber of the Russian Federation, made two recommendations, the implementation of which will help the capital to complete the initiated "Program 200" and smooth out the growing contradictions in society: "First, municipal authorities should adhere to the mechanism stipulated by law. All opinions of citizens should be Secondly, Orthodox communities should conduct much more explanatory work among residents, explain to them the social functions that Orthodox communities can bring, and those environmental efforts to revitalize green spaces, on the use of space for public use, which will be implemented after the construction of the temple complex. "
Joseph Diskin, member of the Public Chamber of the Russian Federation:
Program 200 must be implemented in strict accordance with Russian law. This program should become a model for the formation of a broad social dialogue. I hope that we can learn a lot during its implementation, so that, based on civic engagement and responsibility, we will solve complex problems. Earth has always been a value. There have always been disputes around her and they can be resolved in only one way: understanding why and under what she is assigned. Strengthening the Russian state is the most important task, but at the same time, the means to solve this problem must be adequate to its goal: wide dialogue, understanding, responsibility and ability to hear. "
The construction of churches in Moscow is a good thing, which means that the methods for carrying it out should be the same. When erecting Orthodox objects, the rights of some citizens should not be violated for the interests of others. Therefore, it will be possible to complete the work that has been started only if the opponents and supporters of the Program 200 are able to agree.
The church is an Orthodox church
The church is a multi-valued concept. Let's say the Church of Christ is the name of all believing Christians as a totality of souls. But in the context of our article we restrict ourselves to one meaning of the word “church”: a church, like an Orthodox church.
The foundation ceremony of the temple and the ceremony of laying the commemorative capsule are held before construction
First you need to ask yourself: "Do you really need a church here?"
The question of the feasibility of construction is not superfluous. Unfortunately, the opening of the church often happens thoughtlessly. Many representatives of the clergy are calling for building more churches, arguing that for eleven thousand people we have one church each.
But there are two facts that are silent:
- Of these eleven thousand people, far from all Christians, many need mosques or other temples,
- Even among nominally Orthodox people, there are not many who will go to churches. Churches are empty, and fathers are puzzling about how to attract youth there. This problem is widely known. If there are a lot of empty temples, is another one needed in your area?
Building churches on the site of parks and natural areas is wrong.
And another question that needs to be solved in advance is to interview people. Perhaps even collect their signatures in support of the construction. Alas, it is common practice when Orthodox churches are erected not just like that, but for this purpose destroying green parks and other beautiful objects.
The construction of the church to St. Mitrofan of Voronezh in Gatchino
Not everyone will be happy with this. And it is right.
In addition, by interviewing local residents, you can find out that they, for example, want to see not a temple in an empty place, but a school, hospital or kindergarten. It is necessary to reckon with the desire of the population. Temples that were built contrary to him only spoil the reputation of the Church. People begin to start the Russian Orthodox Church not as a spiritual, but as a soulless religious organization.
So building is a huge responsibility. And you need to approach him wisely.
An officially registered religious group can obtain a building permit
If we are talking about the Orthodox Church, then the first thing to build it is the permission of the ruling bishop.
The initiator can be a church community: it is a religious group registered as a legal entity. And it is possible to register it only if there are at least ten people who have reached the age of majority and permanently reside in the same area. An interesting point:
- If a religious group is new, then it must be present in this region for another fifteen years before it receives the right to build a temple,
- If the group has a centralized religious organization, then this only needs to be confirmed. It’s not necessary to wait fifteen years.
In the case of Orthodox churches, the second option applies. The community must be registered with the following documents:
- application for registration.,
- a list of citizens creating a religious organization, indicating citizenship, date of birth and place of residence,
- charter of the created religious organization,
- minutes of the constituent assembly of ten people or more,
- a document confirming the existence of a religious group in this territory for at least fifteen years, or confirmation of its entry into a centralized religious organization,
- the main provisions of the dogma and a description of the practices used, information on the forms and methods of its activity, on the attitude to the family and marriage, to education, to military service,
- information on the whereabouts of the governing body of the created religious organization,
- receipt of state duty.
You need to contact local authorities with a letter and unlearn the support of the diocese
The next step is to contact local authorities. It is important to do everything wisely. It is best to entrust the correspondence to the bishop himself. His position will be more convincing for the district or city administration.
But it’s not enough just to ask for a place under the temple. It’s good to have a clear idea of the building at the stage of approval:
- What will the building look like?
- How many people will accommodate
- In honor of whom will be the main throne.
Further, much will depend on the compliance of the administration itself. After all, it can give both a good site and an uncomfortable one - where construction is complicated and the location is far from the populated areas of the city or village.
It is important that the site was a little more than needed for the temple. This stock, as practice shows, is sure to come in handy.
First of all, this is a cadastral passport, where the type of permitted use of the land will be indicated.
Detailed guidelines on the procedure for registration of land, design and construction of Orthodox churches are the leadership of the dioceses. For each region, these documents can vary greatly, as everywhere has its own specifics.
So the best option would be to ask the diocese for information on how to build a church in the village or city of your region correctly. These documents will describe in detail the rules for bringing communications to the temple, the procedure for registering land relations and other recommendations.
If you want to open a church in a village or city, it is better to start with a small chapel
Start small. A small wooden hut, a chapel, will cost about 100 thousand rubles. It will be built in a short time and without overlays. If desired, the building can be expanded.
But almost immediately it will turn out to organize services, to join the life of Orthodoxy. Otherwise, if you decide to build a large cathedral, the work will rise for a long time. And unforeseen circumstances can completely disrupt all plans.
Chapel In the name of St. Elijah the Prophet in Wet Island is an example of a small temple that can be built for the first time. Perhaps later a large temple will be built in its place
The design of the temple should be done by the architectural design workshop
Not so long ago, people could put together a wooden hut and call it a temple. In the Soviet years, all were persecuted and happy about it. Actually, similar construction initiatives are found today, but less and less.
The Orthodox Church must be built according to strict rules so that it can function. Here it is necessary to take into account the fire safety requirements, and the features of the ventilation system. It may well be that a project completed by a beginner in construction is simply rejected. But efforts and time are a pity.
There are special architectural design workshops. There are few of them, but all with a state license. Temples on their projects are easily approved by the Committee on Architecture and General Plan, as well as undergo the necessary expertise.
But it is worth making sure in advance that a specific architectural and design workshop agrees to take into account the wishes of the customer, and not deal with the gag.
Workers need to be hired according to their capabilities: either private traders or from a company
There are no general recommendations about who is better to build the temple. It can be simple enthusiasts, but talented. Private traders are quite cheaply able to build the same thing as a well-known construction company expensively. But it will be possible to save well on different managers, a big name and other margins.
On the other hand, private owners and less responsibility. They will do it badly - to whom to make a complaint?
The company is more expensive, but also more reliable. In addition, it is more convenient to order "turnkey" immediately, than at each stage to look for masters of different directions.
The painting of the temple should be entrusted to Orthodox artists
The temple is usually painted with acrylics, although other options are possible. It is believed that the icon painter should be a devout Christian. This is not always the case, but it is desirable that it all turn out that way.
The artist paints a temple. It is required that a pious Orthodox person do this
In general, in the early stages, when you need to quickly erect at least some building, the issue of acquiring utensils and murals from the temple may not be a question. Are these attributes important when we build a church?
They ask for money from organizations, or use registered bricks
The costs will be serious in any case. The best option is to find sponsors. The blessing of Orthodoxy is the most widespread religion in Russia, and among believers it is full of rich people. But where to look for them? Not by the same announcement?
The average cost of a temple in the regions is estimated at three million rubles. In Moscow, it will be much more expensive. And a small wooden house for 100 thousand is not such an affordable initiative.
The registered bricks of the church of St. Nicholas of Myra in Shchukin - an example of how you can collect for the construction of the church
Of course, they solve this problem in different places in different ways. There are two popular ways:
- Mailing of letters with requests to various organizations. The bigger, the better. And even more effective is to make calls, people respond better. You can try contacting a bank, advertising company, etc. If they don’t help themselves, they will tell you where else to ask.
- Name Bricks. Many believers consider it an honor if their names are preserved in the church, written on various architectural elements. For example, money for a huge temple of the Vedic planetarium in India is successfully collected in this way.
The temple needs to be consecrated
The consecration of the temple is carried out in several stages. Even at the construction stage, it’s good practice to invite a priest to conduct a service to consecrate the construction.
After the building is completed, it is necessary to consecrate the building. This is a multi-stage ritual with a procession, the bringing of relics, and the installation of a chapel. It is not directly related to the opening of the temple and is considered in a separate article.
Jesus drove the merchants out of the temple, thereby showing that he forbids selling anything in the house of God, and therefore church business is not welcomed by Christianity (El Greco's painting “Cleansing the Temple”)
Church business - is it permissible or not?
Temple trade in the Bible is condemned several times. For example, here:
“They came to Jerusalem. Иисус, войдя в храм, начал выгонять продающих и покупающих в храме, и столы меновщиков и скамьи продающих голубей опрокинул, и не позволял, чтобы кто пронес через храм какую-либо вещь. И учил их, говоря: не написано ли: дом Мой домом молитвы наречется для всех народов? а вы сделали его вертепом разбойников».
Правило 76 Шестого Вселенского Собора тоже запрещает церковный бизнес:
“No one should make purchases within the sacred fences, while preserving reverence for the churches. For our Savior and God, instructing us with his life in the flesh, commanded us not to create the house of His Father with a house of purchase. He scattered money to money changers, and drove out the people who made the holy temple into a worldly place (John 2: 15-16). Therefore, whoever will be convicted of a spoken crime: let him be excommunicated. "
Neither the apostles nor Christ did not trade, and the Church of the century existed without tariffs on the requirements and sale of candles. Holy Fathers have always opposed trade in temples.
On the other hand, the church needs to exist for something, pay taxes, and make repairs.
The correct position is to remove price tags from all goods and declare a voluntary donation for them. Who is rich will give more. Who is poor, less. And someone will pick it up for free. But spiritual life is built on this: in order to trust the Lord, and since the priest is engaged in a good deed, people themselves must appreciate it.
For example, with some Buddhists, monks generally live on alms. If they are fed, then they will live. But no, they will die.
Of course, it is difficult to change the situation with trade. This is not a matter of one day. But our task is to call parishes to conscience, and the people to generosity. Sincere fees are much more honest than compulsory tariffs.
Before you start raising funds for the construction of the church, it is important to consider an action plan and clearly follow it:
- Decide on a goal. It is necessary to imagine on which project investments are needed, in which city, and where the temple will be built.
- Set the timeline. To encourage people to donate, there must be a time limit. For example, determine the need for construction within 10-12 months.
- Find like-minded people. Acting alone is difficult, so it’s important to find people who also “catch on” with their goal and will help in the implementation of the idea. To organize the collection of money for the construction of the temple in Qiwi (Qiwi) or in another way, a lot of work is required. Extra hands come in handy.
- Decide on a way. It is important to choose an investment search method for building a church. As a rule, this is a collection of donations, charity events, media advertising or crowdfunding. The latter option is most effective, because it eliminates territorial restrictions and allows you to attract more people to donations (including from other countries) and find money in a short time.
- Tagline. The idea of building a temple and raising money should be entrenched in people's heads. To do this, it is important to come up with a catchy phrase, for example, “Let's gather for the church - we will cleanse the soul”.
- Information Preparation. In order for people to believe in achieving the goal, it is worthwhile to prepare documentation for the construction of the object, determine the place of construction (should be suitable for all canons), take a photo of the site where the work is planned.
How to organize fundraising for the temple?
Now consider the methods of finding donations for the construction of the church. Here are some common methods:
- Search for like-minded people and bypassing apartments (houses) in their area. To translate the plan into reality, it will take a lot of people. Everyone is appointed responsible for a certain territory. The task is to go around the residents personally, voice the task and raise money for the temple.
- Organization of a charity event on the street. There are many options here, starting with a small event and ending with a large-scale flash mob.
- Distribution of applications at the place of residence. This option is suitable for cases when there is a database with the addresses of people (typical for online or labor communities).
- Special containers in crowded places. On the streets there are often boxes for collecting funds for treatment, a temple or other purposes. Statistics show that this method works, and people are more willing to part with money. Optimal places for installation are near large retail outlets, pharmacies, cafeterias and other places. But before you start raising money, you should coordinate it with the management of the building.
- Charity events. This option is similar to the stocks discussed above, but on a large scale. Here we are talking about organizing a concert of stars, selling caps or other items of clothing, providing dinners and so on.
- mass media. When highlighting options for how to raise money for a temple, one cannot ignore a method based on promoting an idea through the media (radio, TV).
- Federal Programs and Grants. It is important to immediately contact the authorized bodies involved in project financing. If the appearance of the church is included in the plans, such a project may receive material assistance from the state.
- Crowdfunding. As noted above, this is the best way to raise funds for various purposes, including the construction of the church. An example is the Sbordeneg.com site, where you can create a personal fundraising page for free and attract hundreds of thousands of people to a charity event.
To increase your chances of success, It is important to consider the following:
- People who invest in the construction of the temple should be in the know. It is important to notify them in a timely manner of the stages of work, share the difficulties that arise and confirm the success of the photos. This recommendation is relevant when it comes to building a church.
- Make a present. Citizens who invest in a particular project expect gratitude from the recipient. In the case of the temple, a person becomes part of the project. As an example, the creation of registered bricks, which are subsequently used in the construction process. In addition, nominal bells or other elements of the building are made.
Practice has shown that it is better to focus on small amounts, to set smaller goals. For example, it’s easier to raise funds to solve a specific problem - erecting walls, molding bells, interior decoration, and so on. This is one approach that might work.
In addition to philanthropists, there is a category of sponsors who are more willing to donate to realize the set price and help themselves are called. But the attraction of such people is preceded by a lot of work - including the organization of a project to raise money for a temple via the Internet (on a crowdfunding site).
If we are talking about a specific region, it is worth placing social advertising on billboards. The downside is that for the implementation of the task, funds of philanthropists will also be required. With the right approach, the flow of funds for the construction of the church will accelerate significantly.
How to raise money for a temple - how much does it cost?
The main issue is the cost of the construction of the facility. The process of building an Orthodox object takes place in several stages. First, a building is designed, after which a foundation is laid, and basements are equipped. After the walls are erected, hydro- and thermal insulation is done. As soon as the work is done, the roof is done. The last two stages are the exterior and interior decoration.
Temple construction costs vary depending on the size of the object. On average, the amount ranges from 300 to 500 million rubles, but it can be higher or lower. The difficulty that will have to be faced is the search for a land plot and the resolution of the issue of its allocation with the administration. To get the allotment, you need to draw up a letter and contact it with the authorized bodies. The provision of land takes place in different ways - through discussion with residents or through internal decision. An important document is the cadastral passport, which should indicate the application of the land (for the construction of the temple).
Creating a project is the task of the architectural design bureau. The downside is that finding church professionals with such a license is difficult. After manufacturing, the project must be approved at all levels. It is important to beware of architects who are trying to realize their ideas through the temple, a different vision of such structures. A convenient option when one organization is engaged in design and construction.
Fundraising for the construction of the temple It’s faster if you use several methods at the same time, for example, create a project on a crowdfunding site and use the other ways discussed in the article.