Most of our anglers are skeptical of the beneficial properties of the land, not taking into account situations where, without using it, the fishing performance tends to zero. Their European colleagues, on the contrary, constantly use the land and have gained considerable experience in this matter.
Domestic athletes are already successfully transferring their experience to our bodies of water. Gradually, the advantages of using land are understood by amateur fishermen, but many still do not know what the land is for. So why add ground to the bait? Consider the most common cases.
Who and under what conditions uses the earth?
First of all, floaters use the land, because they deliver bait to the bottom in balls. For donors, the use of land is less critical - they deliver bait with the help of special feeders.
The earth is used in reservoirs with shallow depth and with little or no current. With a large depth and strong current, you already need to add clay, to weight and bind the bait. It is advisable to use the soil on a dark muddy bottom. In such cases, it will give the greatest effect.
Features of nutrition and habitat
The deer’s natural habitat is deciduous, coniferous or mixed forests. For deer, seasonal changes in habitat are typical. So, in spring these animals spend most of their time in meadows and near marshes, and in summer and winter - in the thick of the forest.
Deer mainly feeds on woody plants, agricultural cereals and legumes.
The diet of animals must include tree bark and leaves of oak, pine, spruce, hornbeam, birch, mountain ash, aspen, maple, alder. Among the deer of shrubbery and herbaceous plants necessary in the diet, there are: hazel, raspberry, willow, buckthorn, juniper, sorrel, lily of the valley, anemone, dogrose, sedge, polevole, lily of the valley. For a balanced diet of animals, berries are also needed, for example, blueberries, lingonberries, cranberries or blueberries. Thus, in spring, shrubs make up 19% of the animal's diet, grasses - 48%, trees - 30%, berries - 3%. In summer, the diet of deer as a percentage will look like this: 42% - grass, 28% - trees, 17% - shrubs, 13% - various fruits and mushrooms. In autumn, this ratio will take the form: 40% - shrubs, 22% - grasses, 25% - trees, 13% - fruits and mushrooms. In winter: 50% - trees, another 50% - any nutritious products: fallen leaves, bark, mushrooms, acorns, mosses and lichens, even algae or fish, crayfish (if there is a river near the animal’s place of residence).
Deer breeding involves not only knowledge and understanding of their diet, physiology and morphology, but also a large store of knowledge, experience, but also enormous material costs. At home, it is proposed to breed deer starting from a small (up to 20 individuals) number of animals. And although livestock breeding is considered less energy- and material-intensive than commercial, deer breeding requires a lot of attention and effort.
Where to get the land?
Land, as well as bait, can be found and purchased in fishing stores. But not all stores sell it, and a little pity for the money. The only alternative is to dig it up.
The best is greasy, peaty soil from molehills, taken directly on the shore of the reservoir. To improve its mechanics - the earth needs to be sifted through a bait sieve. This will allow to remove lumps, vegetation, stones and other garbage. The sifted earth rolled up into balls will not fall into the muddy bottom, and it will also be better to disintegrate on the bait table, to emit air bubbles with particles of food, attracting fish much faster.
Reindeer husbandry as a business
The first step to building any farm is the design of the enterprise. To do this, it is recommended to register a peasant farm, which is taxed on a simplified or traditional system. In this case, it is possible to avoid paying sales taxes for five years.
For registration, it is usually sufficient to present the passport and identification code to the tax office. Register an enterprise can be one person or several. When registering, the type of activity (in our case, animal husbandry) must be indicated. In this direction, work in the direction of breeding deer is more beneficial, but for this the farm should work for more than three years, observing sanitary and veterinary standards. Commodity farming does not require additional certification.
Experts recommend breeding deer in semi-natural conditions, which are organized as follows:
- Buying territory close to the forests.
- An area under the settlement of young animals is fenced off on the territory.
- The enclosed space is divided into sections. As a rule, there are three of them: for females, for males and for mating.
However, this also has disadvantages. For example, the natural enemies of deer - wolves and bears, as well as other large predators, if they are found nearby, can attack and injure deer, which causes great losses.
Such production can produce the following products:
- Meat and meat products.
Decreased nutritional value of bait
During periods when the water is cold, the fish is less active. She eats less and moves around. At this time, the nutritional value of the bait should be minimal. The earth dilutes the bait and makes it possible to stretch the saturation process in time. The fish will dig in the ground, looking for particles of food, which will allow it to stay longer in the right place. In addition, the earth itself absorbs the smells and aromas of bait, attracting fish.
Reindeer growing for meat
Economists believe that the cost per kilogram of deer meat is quite low. For example, if you compare the cost per kilogram of beef with the cost per kilogram of venison, it turns out that the former is three times higher on average, that is, 30%. At the same time, prices for venison are much higher than for beef. If a kilogram of beef reaches a maximum price of 700 rubles, then the cost of a kilogram of venison is on average 1,200 rubles, and the maximum cost is equal to two thousand rubles.
This price, nutritionists say, is quite motivated by the properties of meat. After all, venison is low-calorie, practically does not contain cholesterol, is rich in vitamins and minerals (contains iron, calcium, potassium, nitrogen, sulfur). Deer reach marketable weight already at the age of 20-24 months. It was then, in principle, already cost-effective to carry out the slaughter. One animal as a whole gives at least 60 kilograms of meat. Moreover, the request for venison alone in the Moscow region exceeds 5 thousand tons.
To meet these needs, it is necessary to slaughter 100 thousand head of cattle per year, while the herd in this case should not be numbering less than 500 thousand head to restore the viability of the herd. Existing farms do not satisfy this need. Consequently, the reindeer herding business has prospects.
It is good to deliver animal feed to the feeding point with the ground. Bloodworms, maggots and worms cannot be thrown from the hand, because they are delivered to the bottom in balls. Fish safely perceives larvae and worms swarming in the ground and lingers for a long time near the bait. In modern sports baits, where a lot of salt is added, bloodworms die very quickly. In the earth, he feels excellent.
Breeding deer for meat: basic requirements
- The meat should be healthy, uninfected and tasty. For this, preventive treatment and deworming is carried out twice a year.
- Animals should not be afraid of artificial fences and fences, let out - only with strict supervision and with full confidence in the reliability of fences.
- The deer pasture should be segmented over two sites: a grazing site and a forage site. In the area where animals graze, there should be water and rock salt.
- Herds of females and males should be divided into most of the year. They bring them together only in the summer, during the mating season.
- Animals that are selected for slaughter should be separated from the herd until the breeding season and placed in separate rooms.
How much land to add to bait?
Adding ground to the bait is necessary based on fishing conditions. To paint over the bait, you need to use very little soil. When you need to reduce nutritional value - the percentage of land in the mixture can reach up to 50% and above. The rule is this: the more passive the fish, the more, within reason, we add land. When fishing in cold water, only one land with a bloodworm can be used.
Is it possible to feed only land?
One land cannot be a complete bait, because the task of bait is not only to attract fish, but also to keep it in place. The fish will not stand at one point for a long time if it does not find anything nutritious for itself. Despite this, using only one soil, you can successfully catch various trifles.
It is kneaded to a creamy state and thrown into the water with liquid lumps. The resulting turbidity quickly attracts the attention of small roaches, rudd, bleak, perch and other trifles. Large fish is also suitable for this dregs, but it will not stay long at the point of fishing and catching it will be extremely problematic.
As a result, the earth is a very effective, practical and inexpensive component of the bait mixture, which plays no less important role than the base, flavorings, fillers and other components. The main thing is that there is no difficulty with its search, preparation and addition to bait.
Understanding what is happening at the bottom and how the effectiveness of bait increases will come only with experience, but if you learn how to properly add ground to the bait, then you are guaranteed to improve your performance. So, when setting off next time for fishing, be sure to bring a small shovel with you for harvesting the land, and success is guaranteed.
Chernyak Mikhail - Specially for SAMODELKI FISH
Deer breeding technology for antlers
Antlers are soft, non-ossified antlers of the Deer family. Antlers are cut off when the male reaches the age of two years once a year. For mating, males with particularly large horns are selected to improve performance. As a rule, raw materials are cooked and preserved: biologically active additives are made from it to enhance immunity, to restore the human nervous and circulatory system.
Raw materials are procured from May to July. Usually in this period the horns already grow quite large, but do not ossify. To obtain horns, special machines are needed in which the animal is fixed with eyes blindfolded. Horn cutting should not last more than three minutes. Wounds must be cauterized and greased with clay, which prevents infection. After one to two days, antlers can be cooked. To do this, they are immersed in a container of boiling water for two to three minutes, then they are steamed for three minutes. This procedure is repeated 5 to 8 times. Then the antlers are “fried” in the sauna, in which the treatment is carried out at different temperatures. After treatment, the antlers lose up to 65% of their weight due to dehydration.
Economically, this can be very beneficial, since a kilo of deer antlers costs on average two hundred to two hundred and fifty dollars, and, according to statistics, one deer produces up to thirty kilograms of horns per year. On average, to create a habitable herd of territory, you need to spend about 800 thousand rubles per square kilometer. Thus, the cost of buying livestock, feed and organizing a farm for 500 heads will be somewhere around 600 thousand dollars, which will pay off in about four to five years. At the same time, the annual income will be two and a half million dollars (after the first two years for the “Growing" of horns, subject to the purchase of ten-month-old deer, and not one-year-old and a half-year-old young)
Reindeer husbandry and ecotourism
Many livestock enterprises have already mastered the direction of ecotourism. Compiled and implemented numerous business plans in this regard. Attracting people to the farm as observers, experts say, will not only help improve the reputation of the enterprise, but also create additional income. Thus, if you organize a mini-reserve in which people can watch the life of animals in an almost natural environment, you can get quite high incomes from it.
For example, when you set a symbolic price of 50 rubles per ticket, when you visit the “reserve” with at least two hundred people, you can earn one hundred thousand rubles without much effort. With proper advertising, such an economy will be able to receive up to 7 million visitors a year. But in this case, the staff should contain, in addition to the mandatory employees of the livestock farm, several additional veterinarians, a marketing specialist and a huntsman.
Benefit and exotic
Reindeer breeding is considered more profitable and prestigious than the breeding of other species today. This animal is unique: both females and males of this species have horns. Therefore, animals of both sexes can be used for the production of antlers.
The color of these animals varies greatly throughout the year. So, in winter, reindeer are "motley": the limbs and head are dark brown in color, the neck is light beige. In summer, the animal has a plain gray or brown color. The animal is relatively small, but a reindeer weighing 220 kg is registered, but the average weight is 100-120 kg.
Animals are unpretentious, their content is no different from the content of any other species of deer, but due to the horns you can have higher profits.